The hip is a highly complex structure and is often misdiagnosed and confused with low back pain. Commonly may range from very mild to completely debilitating to the patient. It requires an x-ray investigation and full physical assessment to diagnose and treat accurately.

1) Iliotibial Band (ITB) Dysfunction

ITB syndrome is when a tendon called the iliotibial band gets irritated or swollen from rubbing against your hip or knee bones. The tendon is on the outside of your leg and goes from the top of your pelvic bone down to your knee. It rubs against your bones when it gets too tight.

Exercise habits consisting of stretches and correction of footwear can help improve and reduce the symptoms of IT band dysfunction.

2) Hip Impingement

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition in your hip or hips that may cause hip pain, leg pain, and limited overall mobility. The pain from FAI may prevent you from performing your normal work or recreational activities.

3) Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis syndrome is a condition in which the piriformis muscle, located in the buttock region, spasms and causes buttock pain. The piriformis muscle can also irritate the nearby sciatic nerve and cause pain, numbness and tingling along the back of the leg and into the foot. The sciatica nerve runs just adjacent to the piriformis muscle, which functions as an external rotator of the hip. Hence, whenever the piriformis muscle is irritated or inflamed, it also affects the sciatic nerve, resulting in sciatica-like pain.

4) Bursitis

A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that decreases shear forces between tissues of the body. Trochanteric bursitis (inflammation of a bursa) is caused by excessive stress on the bursa between the IT band and the greater trochanter.

Signs and symptoms include pain over the outer aspect of the hipbone, which often is exacerbated when lying on the affected side, standing on the affected leg, or excessive walking.

5) Labral Tear and Groin Pain

Labral tear and groin pain usually occurs in sports where cutting, side-stepping, or pivoting are required. Often, there is a forceful separation of the legs or twisting of the toe outward.

6) Hip Arthritis

Osteoarthritis of the hip occurs when the cartilage coverings on the ball (head of the femur) and the socket (the acetabulum) wear out. It gets worse when you bear weight on the affected limb. Range of motion is often limited, especially internal rotation and hip flexion. Physiotherapy, including joint mobilisation and stretching can result in significant pain relief.

7) Post-surgery (Hip Replacement)

Depending on the severity of the osteoarthritis hip joints and femur fractures, total hip replacement could be one of the options. Both (the head and neck of the femur) and the socket (the acetabulum) are replaced.

With physiotherapy, the patients can gain significant strength and improve balance skills

8) Fracture of Hip

A bad fall or blow to the hip can break (fracture) the thigh bone, typically around the femoral neck region. If the broken bone does not heal properly, the joint may slowly wear down. Blood flow through the femoral head may be restricted or cut off, leading to the necrosis of the joint.