Muscle strains of abdominal muscles and groin muscles may occur while being active with exercise or performing more strenuous activities of daily living. Some other common causes of pelvic-related pain may be pelvic floor muscle dysfunction such as weakness or high tonicity, abdominal surgeries (hysterectomy, C-section, prostatectomy), and infections. Effective treatment requires a comprehensive evaluation of the pelvis, lumbar spine, hips, and abdominal area. Hands-on therapy may include joint and soft tissue mobilisation accompanied by muscular re-training and (or) strengthening/muscular endurance training. Treatment may also include modalities such as biofeedback, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, or dry needling. These are effective techniques for normalising muscle tone, improving muscle function, and reducing problematic symptoms.

1) Strains

2) Post Surgeries

3) Post delivery

4) Urinary incontinence

Incontinence is the loss of bladder or bowel control, resulting in the involuntary leakage of urine or faeces. Pelvic floor muscle weakness, resulting in a reduction of muscular support for the bladder, uterus or rectum, maybe the cause. The muscles, because of disuse, are unable to tighten and keep the openings closed.

Incontinence of urine may be termed:

  1. Stress (leakage with physical activity, coughing, sneezing or laughing)
  2. Urgency or Frequency (involuntary bladder emptying whenever the sensation of urge is felt)
  3. Involuntary leakage of faeces and gas can be the result of chronic constipation or trauma.

Behavioural assessment of food, beverage and medication consumption can identify contributing factors.

Physical therapy Treatment often includes:

  1. Retraining bowel and bladder habits
  2. Abdominal muscle rehabilitation
  3. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation (with or without electrical stimulation)
  4. Biofeedback

5) Pelvic Floor Muscle pain

Pelvic floor muscle tension or pain may occur in the anatomical sling of muscles which support the bladder, uterus and rectum. It can be caused by muscle imbalances, nerve or joint problems, scar tissue from surgery, childbirth, endometriosis or after radiation. Pelvic pain can also be caused by haemorrhoids, anal fissures, organ prolapse or constipation. One who suffers from pelvic floor pain/tension may experience painful intercourse, difficulty sitting, and pain in the buttocks, hips, lower abdomen or low back. Imbalances in the muscles surrounding the pelvis can cause Vulvar Vestibulitis, Vulvodynia, Interstitial Cystitis or Vaginismus. Rehabilitation may include pelvic floor relaxation training, manual therapies, postural and therapeutic exercise, electrical stimulation and biofeedback.
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