Foot and ankle pain can have many different causes but some of the leading causes of foot and ankle pain are due to physical trauma, overuse, medical conditions, weak muscles, and other risk factors. An accurate diagnosis makes it treatable. Targeted exercises and stretching improve these types of pain. Balance retraining is often required. Corrective shoes and braces will need to be prescribed as well.

1) Ankle sprains

The ankle joint is a complicated joint, and there are many bones which come together to make up the ankle joint. There are many ligaments that attach to the bones at the ankle and are very susceptible to injury. The most common mechanism of injury for the ankle joint is an inversion ankle sprain. Hallmark Physiotherapists will suggest appropriate strengthening the muscles of your lower leg and foot. This type of exercises are designed to prevent reoccurring injury in the future. We will also work with you on range of motion, balance and coordination.

2) Plantar fasciitis

The sole of your foot is covered by a fascia. This blankets the muscles of the sole of your foot, from front to back. This covering can be inflamed for various reasons. It is most commonly inflamed due to overuse, but can be irritated from an increase in the amount of walking, standing, and/or stair climbing. Often times strengthening at stretching appropriate muscles will prevent the painful condition. Your physical therapist may also try a taping technique or may suggest a splint for the foot. These techniques would be used to take some stress off the heel and aid in stretching the plantar fascia.

3) Plantar fasciosis

Plantar fasciosis is sometimes confused with plantar fasciitis. However, the term plantar fasciitis is not correct. The term fasciitis means inflammation of the fascia, but plantar fasciosis is a disorder where the fascia is repeatedly over stressed rather than inflamed. The issue often lies in biomechanical failure at hip, knee or ankle levels. The treatment varies with identification of the cause of degeneration of the fascia tissue.

4) Achilles tendonitis

Tendons are the tissues that connect your muscles to your bones and help you move your skeleton. Tendonitis, or tendinitis, occurs when those tendons become irritated or inflamed. This inflammation can be painful and debilitating. Although they’re strong and fibrous structures, many of the tendons in the foot are vulnerable to injury. In the ankle and heel, the posterior tibialis, peroneal, and Achilles tendons can all become inflamed, and tendonitis can worsen if not treated promptly.

Depending on the severity of the inflammation and your pain level, you may need to rest and apply ice to the affected area before beginning any physical therapy. Staying off your feet may be difficult, but it is necessary for healing. Recovery time for tendonitis in the foot or ankle can take several weeks to months. However, without proper treatment, recovery could take much longer and lead to irreversible arthritis of joints.

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